This is a masterpost of online educational resources (I should add that socialism is a very broad term and all of these things overlap a lot and are really closely interlinked but for the sake of organising this post more neatly I divided them up into sections) This is by no means a complete reading list or a “you have to read everything on here” either, but hopefully it will be helpful to some people, particularly for beginners!
A political and economic theory of social organisation that advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole. — Dictionary
Socialism is that social system under which the necessaries of production are owned, controlled, and administered by the people, for the people, and under which, accordingly, the cause of political and economic despotism having been abolished, class rule is at end. — Daniel De Leon
(in Marxist theory) a transitional social state between the overthrow of capitalism and the realisation of full communism
Symbol: ☭ Definition:
A socioeconomic system structured upon common ownership of the means of production and characterised by the absence of social classes, money, and the state. — Dictionary
Symbol: Ⓐ Definition:
as a political theory, originates from the greek word anarchos, meaning “one without rulers”; contrary to common misconceptions it does not simply mean social disorder or lawlessness.
Belief in the abolition of all government and the organisation of society on a voluntary, cooperative basis without recourse to force or compulsion. — Dictionary
(also known as anarcho-communism, free communism, libertarian communism, and communist anarchism) is a theory of anarchism which advocates the abolition of the state, capitalism, wages and private property (while retaining respect for personal property), and in favour of common ownership of the means of production, direct democracy, and a horizontal network of voluntary associations [unions] and workers’ councils with production and consumption based on the guiding principle: “from each according to his ability, to each according to his need”. — from wikipedia
Politically we are anarchists, and economically, communists or socialists. With regard to political organization the communistic anarchists demand the abolition of political authority, the state; we deny the right of a single class or single individual to govern or rule another class or individual. […] Concerning the economical form of society, we advocate the communistic or co-operative method of production. — Adolph Fischer
The advocacy of women’s rights on the grounds of political, social, and economic equality to men. — Dictionary